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Wine glasses: from theory to application

Choose your wine glass AVEINE

Wine glasses are a must for every wine tasting. They magnify the wine, reveal its aromas and are available in all shapes and sizes. In this article, we will introduce you to this essential element in the world of wine.

The Short History of the Wine Glass

The wine glasses as we know them today did not appear until the beginning of the 14th century. At the time, they were a reflection of the Venetian know-how of the island of Murano, which exported them all over Europe.

After that, during the 18th century in France, people sometimes tasted several wines during the same meal. This is how in the 19th century glassware services became popular. Each glass then had its own use. Moreover, at that time the glass became more democratic and was no longer reserved exclusively for the bourgeoisie, its use became more common.

Furthermore, in the 20th century, Claus Riedel was the first to acknowledge a correlation between the shape of the wine glass and its influence on tasting. He then completely changed the style of wine glasses to blown, uncoloured and very thin glasses. After that, he launched the « Sommeliers » collection, the first series of glasses based on the style and character of each wine. In other words, this marks a turning point in glassware dedicated to wine. Nowadays, Riedel is still one of the world’s leading glass brands.

In the 1970s, the INAO wine glass became the reference glass for professional wine tastings. It is defined by a set of specifications from the French Association for Normalization (AFNOR) and receives its certification in 1971.

INAO Glass

The structure of the wine glass

Three main elements form the wine glass: the stem, the foot and the bowl. Other elements, less known to the general public, have their importance. This is what we will see below.

Let’s start with the main elements:

  • The stem, also known as the base, allows the glass to be balanced.
  • The foot connects the stem to the glass container. It is this element that allows you to hold your glass during tasting.
  • The bowl (also called chalice), represents the container and allows the drink to be poured inside.

Let’s move on to the next ones:

  • The gob is the lower part of the bowl, which acts on the oxygenation of the wine. It can take different shapes (round, straight, etc.).
  • The shoulder is the widest part of the bowl. It allows the development of the wine’s aromas.
  • The chimney, the upper part of the bowl and narrower than the rest, prevents the aromas from escaping.
  • Finally the rim of the bowl, where you put your lips, has an impact on the taste of the wine when tasting it.

It is all these elements, assembled together, that give the distinctive and recognizable shape of wine glasses.

Choosing your wine glass

During the tasting, 3 of our senses are activated: sight, smell and taste. And the wine glass plays a decisive role for each one. Some characteristics are particularly important to consider when choosing a glass.

Choosing a glass
  • The transparency influences the visual analysis. Indeed, it is important to see the colour, the robe of the wine to fully appreciate the tasting.
  • The size and shape of the glass which influence the gustatory and olfactory analysis. For example, with the diameter of the container larger than that of the opening, the aromas (volatile molecules) of the wine spread and reach the taster’s nose. Be careful however not to have an opening that is too closed because the aromas will not be perceived.
  • Be careful when choosing the glass because its thickness also plays a role in the tasting. For an optimal olfactory analysis, the rim must be as thin as possible. The finer it is, the more the taste will run through your mouth.

There is a “universal” form: the INAO wine glasses we mentioned. They are characterized by a wide bowl and a narrowed opening. If you have small spaces, you can opt for INAO glasses that will suit all your tastings.

A few basic rules to follow when choosing and preserving your wine glasses

Of course you want to get the best of your wine tastings, so here are a few tips to succeed.

  • Do not taste your wines in straight water glasses. Indeed, it is important to hold your glass by the foot, first to avoid unwanted fingerprints and most importantly, to avoid heating the wine when holding the glass by the bowl.
  • Do not take tinted glasses, because seeing the colour of your wine is part of the visual analysis of a tasting.
  • Wash the glasses only with warm water, without any detergent or soap. The dishwasher should also be avoided.
  • Wipe the glasses immediately after washing them to avoid leaving traces of limescale.
  • In terms of glass size, there is no need to use XXL size glasses, which are harmful for the aromas of the wine during tasting.
Cleaning the glasses

Characteristics according to the wines

There are dozens of different types of wine glasses. But if you only need to keep 3 at home, choose a red wine glass, one for white/rosé and one for sparkling.

Red wine glasses

The red wine glass should be large enough to allow good aeration in order to release all the aromas. Besides being wider towards the bottom, the top of the glass must be narrower in order to appreciate all the aromas at the nose and in the mouth. When serving, do not exceed 50% of the glass.
Also, if you drink a concentrated wine, aeration is all the more important because its aromas are less volatile (aromas of ripe fruit and spices in particular).

White and rosé wine glasses

The white/rosé wine glass has the same shape as the red wine glass, i.e. a rather wide container, but a more flared top. In terms of size, it must be smaller in capacity in order to renew the wine (it is important to keep the wine fresh). Also, in order to keep it always fresh, it should not be filled to more than a third. Indeed, this will allow the wine in the glass to be renewed more frequently.

Sparkling wine glasses

The sparkling wine glass must be tulip-shaped or flute-shaped to retain the effervescence of the wine. Be careful with glasses that do not retain the bubbles. When serving, you can fill your glass to two thirds of its capacity.

Which glass

Glasses according to the age of the wine

For an old wine, choose a narrow glass opening that will trap the aromas in the glass. On the contrary, with a young wine, prefer a slightly wider opening to allow the aromas to be released more quickly when the wine comes into contact with air and a wide bowl to facilitate aeration. You can also use the Aveine Smart Wine aerator to get a precise and mesured aeration.

Glasses according to wine regions

Each wine-growing region is “represented” by a glass that allows to taste and enjoy all the aromas of the wine it produces. These include the representative Burgundy bowl, the slim shape of the Bordeaux, the Champagne flute, or the green foot of Alsace.


If there is a suitable glass for every type of wine, there is a reason. Indeed, the shape of the glass can have a very important impact on the perception of the taste of the wine. It could be interesting to see if the same wine will taste the same depending on the glass in which it is served. This is why the choice of glass is one of the essential elements of a successful tasting, especially for aeration. For example, try to drink an excellent wine served in a plastic cup (not to mention the impact on the environment). Chances are it will lose its character!

Wine & French “art de vivre”

L'art de vivre à la Française et le vin

For many people, the French “Art de vivre” has no equivalent in the world. All the more so, this expression is most of the time used in French! But what exactly is this “French art of living” that others envy us? Why, among others, has wine become an emblematic part of the French “art de vivre” that we value so much? This is what we will to try to figure out today.

#1 The French “art de vivre“: what is it?

Like all the peoples of the world, the French are the object of (many) clichés. But some of our little habits are also the source of envy among our neighbors! This “art de vivre“, which is said to be specific to the French, is characterized by a historical and cultural heritage. France is, indeed, the birthplace of luxury (haute-couture, perfumery, fashion) and gastronomy (cheese, wine) in particular.

The French “art de vivre“, is also another form of luxury: taking the time to appreciate the beauty and the good taste of things. Anything that gives pleasure and can be shared. As everywhere in France, and perhaps especially in Paris and the big cities, we go fast, we run… But when it comes to eating or enjoying a glass of wine, we sit down and take our time. And at lunch, if elsewhere you eat a sandwich in front of your screen, in France, the break is sacred. So try to contact someone “between noon and 2”!

Indeed, the “arts” of eating well, and therefore drinking well (wine of course) define the French “art de vivre“. Because one cannot be achieved without the other in France! Moreover, wine is often described as a “mark of cultural diversity“. Wine is an expression of sharing and conviviality and is an essential part of the French “art de vivre“.

Le déjeuner des canotiers - Auguste Renoir
Le déjeuner des canotiers – Auguste Renoir

Another fact also proved the place of wine as an emblematic drink: during the confinement only 1st necessity stores could remain open. If the United States decided to leave the gun shops open, in France it was the wine merchants. Everyone has their own priorities!

#2 The gastronomic meal of the French Inscribed on the list of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity

Moreover, since 2010, the gastronomic meal of the French has been promoted to an art. It’s one of the first culinary traditions in the world to be included in the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.

Because this meal, like the Tour de France (the most watched sporting event in the world) is composed of several “stopovers”! “The gastronomic meal should respect a fixed structure. Starting with an apéritif (drinks before the meal) and ending with liqueurs. Containing in between at least four successive courses, namely a starter, fish and/or meat with vegetables, cheese, and dessert.” This meal is defined by a customary social practice. Through the festive meal there’s the expression of the art of “eating well” and “drinking well”.

French meal (a starter, fish and/or meat with vegetables, cheese, and dessert)

This “social and cultural act“, which usually lasts several hours, is a privileged moment during which we eat and drink. And it’s also a time when we debate, enjoy the present moment and learn how to pair food and wine.

It is also a time when agreements are made, contracts are signed, and perhaps the course of the world is changed. In a very interesting book “A la table des diplomates*” we learn about the key role of food and wine in French diplomacy. Diplomats use meals for political purposes, because they are privileged moments that allow them to create friendships. And because a glass of wine can also sometimes loosen the words…!

The diplomat table

#3 The french paradox

Science has also taken an interest in the special place of wine in France and its effect on the (good) health of the French. In the 1960s and 1970s, epidemiologists studied a phenomenon that intrigued them: how was it that, despite a high-fat diet and heavy tobacco consumption, life expectancy in France revealed so many disparities with other Western countries? A heart attack rate four times lower than in the United States? And a cardiovascular mortality rate nearly 50% lower than in the United Kingdom? Long story short, the results converged towards a moderate and regular consumption of wine as a factor in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Although criticized at the time, and put into perspective by many studies since then, this idea is now firmly settled in people’s minds. And a regular wine consumption is, for many people in France and abroad, associated with good health. Moreover, wine is considered to be the most “natural” and “best for health” alcoholic drink.


More than just “a French way of life”, “eating well” and “drinking well” have been raised to the rank of arts. They are part of France’s cultural heritage. Wine has a special place in this tradition linked to sharing, celebrations, and conviviality. It’s somehow associated to everyday life but also to the extraordinary. And it also has its opponents. On the one hand there are the “lobbies” for whom wine is truly a cultural drink, and of moderation. On the other hand are the health authorities for whom wine must be assimilated to all alcohols. And its impact on mortality in France is undeniable. Whether at the center of the table or at the heart of the debates, the place of wine is quite apart in our society!

At Aveine we share the values of sharing and epicureanism of this French “Art de vivre“. Come and try the “French Art de vivre” all around the world!

* « A la table des diplomates. L’histoire de France racontée à travers ses grands repas (1520-2015). » “At the diplomats’ table. The French History trought their great meals” Published by L’Iconoclaste, 2016.

The Cité du Vin in Bordeaux

Cité du Vin

Today we leave for Bordeaux to discover the Cité du Vin.

With us, Solène Jaboulet Marketing and Communication Director. She offers us the privilege of an outing during the lockdown.

Hello Solène, can you introduce us to La Cité du Vin, its purpose and ambition… in a few lines?

The Cité du Vin is a cultural site, managed by a Foundation of Public Utility (the Foundation for World Culture and Civilizations) whose ambition is to preserve, share and make accessible to the greatest number the culture of wine as a historical, universal and living heritage.

It is a private entity, which depends entirely on its own resources: the ticket sales represent the main part of the revenues, together with those of the shop, the privatization of spaces for companies (seminars, conferences…) and a bit of patronage which supports the exhibitions and the cultural program.

The Cité du Vin is a very beautiful place and a very playful place, who is it for? Wine lovers? For everyone?

The Cité du Vin is for everyone, from beginners to enlightened wine lovers, adults and children alike. Just like gastronomy, wine is a cultural heritage. By cultivating the vine, men and women have shaped the landscape for thousands of years, on every continent. It is an integral part of the history of many civilizations. It is this culture that we have a mission to share. For this reason we have chosen to use mainly digital technologies that allow a large number of experiments. They are fun and easy to access, while being based on scientific content validated by experts. Thanks to an interactive digital guide, the content is accessible in 8 languages. This is why the Cité du Vin welcomes visitors from 180 different countries!

What can we find at the Cité du Vin?

The permanent exhibition

The heart of the Cité du Vin is called the Permanent Exhibition. It is a 3000m² area consisting of 19 interactive sections that allow you to explore different wine-related universes. You have topics like civilisations, geography, economy, arts, gastronomy… and of course winemaking.

The permanent trail

Panoramic tasting

At the end of the trail, visitors are invited to go to the belvedere. It is 35 metres high and from there they have a unique view of Bordeaux. This is an opportunity to enjoy a glass of wine chosen from among fifteen wines from all over the world. You can also have grape juice, organic and local, for children or anyone who does not wish to taste wine.

tasting with the stars

Workshops, exhibitions, conferences…

In addition, we offer oenocultural workshops that allow small groups to discover or deepen the art of wine tasting. There is even a workshop for families (without alcohol of course!) in which children can discover all the subtleties of taste, and how our different senses intervene in its constitution.

Every year, the Cité du Vin also presents a major art exhibition that allows other facets to be explored: after bistros, music and glass design, the next one will focus on mythology and the figure of Dionysus.

Finally, many lectures, meetings, debates, screenings or shows are offered throughout the year, making the Cité a real place to live, where you can of course also eat, starting from the ground floor brasserie with its terrace overlooking the gardens, up to the panoramic restaurant on the 7th floor.

enjoy the view

And more…

And I almost forgot: there is a reading room with free access, a beautiful shop with many objects and books about wine, and a cellar with more than 800 references from 70 different countries!

The Cité du Vin is in the heart of Bordeaux, but Bordeaux is not in the heart of the Cité du Vin why is that?

Within the Permanent Exhibition, 2 units are more focused on Bordeaux (its history with wine, and the surrounding vineyards). We also offer a tasting workshop on Bordeaux wines. But the Foundation’s mission is to share a culture that is universal. This is why it is the history and the vineyards of the world that are put in the spotlight: it is a priceless richness because we all have a lot to learn from each other.

Today and since March 13, the Cité du Vin is closed to the public, but you still do some activities?

Of course, during lockdown, the culture remains open! Many contents (recordings of past events, interviews with personalities from the wine world, interviews with artists or photographers…) are accessible free of charge from our online media library ( We have also made available the audio part of the Table des terroirs, a module of the permanent exhibition in which winegrowers explain how they grow vines and make wine in their country. (

And we continue to keep in touch with all wine culture lovers on our social networks with original news, quizzes, or even a drawing competition for children (Facebook, Instagram, Twitter).

At Aveine, wine is above all about sharing and above all about people. Can you tell us a word or two about yourself? Who are you and how did you get to the Cité du Vin?

After 20 years spent working in strategy, marketing and communication in major CAC 40 groups in Paris and abroad, I had this wonderful opportunity to join the cultural world. It is my great personal passion. Working for a Foundation of public utility that has a real purpose, in the city of France that devotes the largest culture budget per capita and where I only travel by bike, it changes my life! (Yes, many people envy me…).

What’s your “lockdown” wine?

There is not only one, the wine regions of the world have so much wealth to share with us! But in times of lockdown, it’s clear that I prefer to play rather local: the Bordeaux region has more than enough to allow us to escape while staying at home!

Any wine / book / film / … ?

In the Forest“, a novel by Jean Hegland. A friend had given it to me several months ago, but I hadn’t had time to open it yet. It has a special resonance in this time of crisis. But that’s all I can say…

Thank you Solène for this beautiful discovery of the Cité du Vin, which we invite you to visit and revisit! And don’t forget to stop by the restaurant le 7, one of Aveine’s Ambassadeur. And of course, you will find the Aveine aerator at the Cité du Vin’s shop.

Questions to Karen MacNeil, the author of “The Wine Bible”

Karen MacNeil - Aveine

Aveine had the honor to interview Karen MacNeil, journalist, wine expert and author of the best seller “The Wine Bible”.

Hi Karen, can you tell us a few words about yourself? What led you to wine?

I have written about wine for nearly 40 years now. I often wonder what led me to wine, but the truth is I think some things choose you; you don’t choose them. I have never wanted to do anything else.

Can you tell us about your books, The Wine Bible for example? How did you come up with the idea?

When I wrote the first edition of The Wine Bible, most of the great books on wine were written by English authors, not American authors. Those books often presumed a great familiarity with wine to begin with. My book was one of the first “big” books written by an American—and written by an American who was a woman. It was also written in a way that was conversational and extremely easy to read. It was important to me that the book also focus on culture, history, art, and gastronomy as they intersect with wine. In the U.S., most wine books sell on average about 8,000 copies. The Wine Bible has now sold over 1 million copies worldwide.

The Wine Bible

Did you encounter some challenges in your (very rich) “wine” career, as a woman?

Yes. But I simply didn’t waste time thinking about anything that might be a barrier to success. My goal has always been to work harder and longer than anyone else around me. If you do that long enough, you eventually get good at what you do.

What do you think of the growing number of women in wine?

Terrific! I know lots of super talented young women in the wine industry and the industry is much better off for it.

What kind of wine gifts would you recommend for a woman who loves wine?

My favorite simple tool is a bouchon (Champagne stopper). I drink a glass of Champagne every single night and have done so for 20 years. I consider it indispensable to motherhood.

What wine would you recommend to comfort ourselves during the sanitary crisis?

It’s time to drink GREAT wine, as good as you can afford. Great wine is a source of incredible pleasure and solace.

Do you have a movie advice to go through this strange period?

I loved the new movie Uncorked, about a young black man who wants to become a sommelier.


And to the French readers who ask: will there ever be a French version of The Wine Bible?

I hope so!!!!! It depends on French publishers. We’d be thrilled if one of them was interested in translating The Wine Bible. The Chinese version just came out a few months ago.

What do you think about the importance of aerating your wines?

Aeration is important to wine to “open it up”—it’s actually quite astounding what a little bit of oxygen can do to make a wine taste richer and more expressive.

Thank you, Karen MacNeil, for taking the time to answer our questions!

Karen MacNeil created WineSpeed, an intelligent and fun digital media platform. It is comprised of a fast and fascinating weekly newsletter delivered to subscriber’s email boxes each Friday, plus the informative and educational website WineSpeed is bolstered by videos and a robust social media campaign across Instagram, Twitter, Facebook, and LinkedIn. 

Exploring the taste marks of wine

The taste of wine AVEINE

The taste experience appeals to our 5 senses. Taste is associated with smell and sight. In the wine world, flavor is a determining factor, it gives us a first glimpse of the quality of the wine. This article will therefore aim to explain in the primary flavors of the wine and their aromatic properties.

Taste and aroma

The taste and smell of the wine vary depending on the type of production, the pressing of the grapes, and the fermentation process but also the way wine was preserved and the way it was served, if it had been aerated the right amont of time, if it is at the right temperature. All these elements should be taken into account when we talk about the properties of wine. However, it is important to refocus on volatile compounds when it comes to aroma and flavor. These compounds generate taste sensations and can have direct or indirect olfactory effects through the nostrils or throat [1].

Tasting wine

Wine aroma

As for volatile compounds, they are responsible for the aroma of the wine, and develop during the process of processing the grapes into wine. The wine aromas obtained using this process can be classified into 3 categories. First, the primary aromas from the grapes are distinguished by their fruity or floral character, a sign of a relatively young wine. The secondary aromas are called “vinous.” They are the result of fermentation. Finally, tertiary aromas result from the aging of the wine in tanks, barrels and/or bottles [2].

Drinking wine

Exploring the taste of wine

Taste is one of the most important senses we have. When testing a wine, all the properties of the wine can be detected. Many flavors and sensations are felt during tasting. What do people usually feel when tasting a wine? One of the first sensations you may feel is the acidity. The acidity of the wine is detected by the sides of the tongue and cheeks. The grapes contain acids that are important for the flavor of the wine. During wine production more new acids will develop. One of the acids that can be easy to identify is acetic acid, giving the wine a vinegary taste [1]. Other compounds, such as tannins, also affect the taste of wine. Tannin gives dry, astringent sensations on teeth, gums and even the hard palate [2].

Enjoy wine

And do not forget, at Aveine, we think that you taste what you want and that your opinion is very important. Saying “this is a good wine” is different than saying “I like this wine“. We all have our taste and it’s important to listen to what we think.

[1] Ronald S. Jackson. Wine Tasting: A Professional Handbook. 2009. Food Science and Technology International Series. Second Edition.

[2] Grainger K. et Tattersall H. Introduction to Part 2 – Wine Quality, Wine tasting. 2016. Wiley Blackwell. Second Edition.

Should we be aerating Champagne?

Aerate Champagne

Aerating a champagne before serving it is not a widespread practice. However, it should not be forgotten that champagne is above all a wine! Therefore, champagne can be aerated, just like red or white wine or any wine!

Why should you aerate champagne?

When opened, Champagne often has an aggressive bubble. Indeed, when opening the bottle, there is a strong release of carbon dioxide. This aggressive bubble can sometimes be embarrassing when tasting and can produce a slight aggression on the nose. Decanting your champagne will produce a bubble that will be finer and more delicate at the first sip.

Is it risky to air a champagne?

The major risk of aerating champagne is that aeration can lead to the disappearance of bubbles. To avoid this, it is necessary to have an adequate ventilation technique. A suitable decanter with a shape that is not too flared is essential. In addition, the decanter must be at the same temperature as the bottle to avoid thermal shock. To protect the champagne from excessive degassing, it is necessary to pour the liquid very gently into the decanter. Indeed, if this step is done too fast, the champagne could lose its complexity. You must slide it very slowly on the edges of your decanter.

To see for yourself the effect of aeration on a Champagne, we recommend that you offer your guests two different bottles of champagne at your next meal. One will be served in a decanter and the other in a bottle. The result will be immediate!

Like all the other wines, every Champagne needs the right amont of air to be perfectly aerated. Soon Aveine will produce a Smart Champagne Aerator but in the mid-time you can download the Aveine app that will tel you exactly how long you should open your Champang before drinking it.

Should we aerate old wines?

Some people think that we should always aerate old wines. Others think that they should not be aerated at all. What is the answer?

An old wine is fragile and will prefer not to be rushed. The aeration of an old wine can therefore be dangerous. Nevertheless, and as always it depends on the wine. If it proves to be very tannic, it will appreciate, like a young wine, a controlled aeration. However, few vintages still offer powerful tannins after long years of inactivity.

Old wines should be carefully aerated

If you choose to aerate an old wine that does not necessarily need it, it may lose a lot in the mouth. Indeed, if its tannic structure collapses, it is also its intensity and power that escape. Contact with oxygen may therefore cause them to become unbalanced. So, for these wines, enjoy every sip, but don’t wait too long!

old wines

Aerate old wines is therefore recommended if it is particularly powerful and tannic. On the other hand, if it indicates a lighter structure, aeration should be avoided. Feel free to taste it to make your choice.

Our advice

This advice comes from a sommelier. He told us: “An old wine… it has been waiting to be drunk for a very long time, so when we open it, it gives everything. So, if you have to drink an old wine: drink it quickly, with friends, but not too much to enjoy it. And if unfortunately, it seems to have passed or has a strange taste, keep it open for 24 hours and sometimes a miracle happens!” Otherwise you can always use the Aveine aerator!

Another advice, you can always try to contact the winemaker. It’s not always easy but when you’ll tell him you have one of his bottle that is 20 years old he might be happy to talk a bit with you. Always remember, wine is about sharing and for a winemaker, history is important and many winemakers remember every year of hard working.

Should young wines be aerated?


Young wines are those that generally benefit most from aeration. Indeed, young wines often reveal a strong acidity and fairly hard tannins. Young, the wine is unstable and particularly moving. From then on, oxygenation of a young wine will make its tannins more supple and reduce its acidity. It is therefore recommended to aerate a young wine. The aeration will allow it to offer more roundness in the mouth and to reveal all its aromas as well as possible. That said, you can drink some of them young and they will not necessarily need to be aerated and will reveal a beautiful roundness as soon as they open.

What to drink while watching basketball worldcup?

The United States are back in the game this year in China! So, who from Serbia, Spain, Greece, France or Australia can stand up to them? Hard to say, but probably no one. If we can’t tell you who will win the basketball world cup, we can advise you on wine pairing with the best games of the competition! Here is our selection.

(almost) Chinese wine

China being the host country of the competition, we had to honour it! And we can only advise you to try one of the wines of Yao Family Wines, owned by the greatest representative of basketball in China: Yao Ming. Its Cabernet Sauvignon is superb, with magnificent aromas of red fruits.

American wine

It is difficult to choose among the splendid wines of Nappa Valley. So, we thought we’d stay on the theme of “basketball» and offer you to taste one of Dwayne Wade’s wines! We recommend the 2015 Napa Valley Three by Wade Red Blend. Once a little aired, it reveals notes of exotic flowers. Fascinating.

Serbian wine

Serbia is the big favourite of the competition behind the USA, but it is also a historical wine country! Indeed, the first vines in Serbia are dated back to the time of the Roman Empire. We can only recommend a wine from Tonkovic Winery to familiarize you with Serbia. This estate tries to highlight an emblematic grape variety of the region: Kadarka. Thus, the Kadarka Fantazija is particularly elegant and refined.

Spanish wine

Spanish wine

Third biggest wine producer in the world, and eternal favourites of the competition, we must propose a Spanish wine to drink while watching the world cup. We advise you to enjoy a glass of Cune Reserva 2014. The Cune cellar is one of the greatest names from the Rioja region.

Greek wine

When you have the world’s best player on your team, aka Giannis Antetokounmpo, you can’t be taken lightly. Greece are therefore looking forward to be a particularly dangerous team this year. So, enjoy a glass of Saint George Nemea 2015 dry red wine, and immerse yourself in the Greek atmosphere!

Australian wine

First team to beat the USA in 13 years, Australia deserves a tribute. Especially for its wine! We advise you to try a Grand Burge, from the Barossa Valley. The Filsell Shiraz comes from vines that are almost a hundred years old and it takes several years for them to reach the maximum of their potential.

Get ready for WSET with our questions & answers!

people preparing wset

For those who don’t know, the WSET correspond to the Wine & Spirit Education Trust. This is the most important diploma in wines and spirits. It is internationally recognized and it’s a true institution in the wine sector. It allows everyone to learn different tasting techniques to be able to talk more precisely about wine. It is a real plus on your CV because it is recognized on every continent!

There are four different levels of WSET:

  • Level 1 is for wine lovers who want to learn the art of wine tasting
  • Level 2 is more technical: we will find questions about the grape varieties, the wine regions, wine labelling and wine making.
  • Level 3 is for professionals. The aim will be to highlight the different stages of wine production: viticulture, winemaking, maturing or even the bottling.
  • The WSET Level 4 Diploma in Wines is an expert-level qualification covering all aspects of wine.

Here is a series of questions that can help you to be ready for the WSET:

I Questions about wine:

bottles of wine

1 – What is the style of Chablis?

2 – Which country produces the most wine (by volume) in Europe?

3 – What does the mention BSA (Gross Ageless) on a bottle of champagne?

4 – What are the terms “Gross” or “Gross without dosage” referring to on a bottle of champagne?

5 – What characteristics are generally attributed to a “Blanc de Noir” Champagne?

6 – What does a mature Margaux generally looks like?

7 – What characteristics are generally attributed to a Barolo?

8 – What are the aromas of a corked wine?

9 – What is Armagnac?

10 – Where are the sensors detecting bitterness located?

II Questions about grape varieties and wine-growing regions:


1 – What is the most common grape variety in Bordeaux wines?

2 – In France, which wines do we associate with the “Riesling” variety?

3 – With which grape variety is Cognac made?

4 – From which grape variety is a Champagne made with the mention “Blanc de Blanc”?

5 – From Which grape variety is a Champagne made with the mention “Blanc de Noir”

6 – What is the most common grape variety in red Burgundy wines?

7 – What is the most common grape variety in white Burgundy wines?

8 – Which grape variety of origin of the Cahors has an important success in Argentina?

9 – Which grape variety is used to produce Meursault (Burgundy wine)

10 – Which grape variety is used to produce rosé wines in Spain?

11 – What wine is made from “Pinotage”?

12 – Which grape variety is used to produce famous white wines in both Germany and Australia?

13 – What is the main region of Sauvignon blanc from France?

14- Which region has a reputation for producing the best Chardonnay wine?

The area planted with Sauvignon blanc in France is now estimated at 14,000 hectares, with about 6,000 hectares in the southwest and as many in the Loire Valley. He reigns supreme in the central part of the Loire vineyards, where he supplies no less than 75% of the wines, all colors combined.

15- Which regions are part of the Rhône Valley?

16- Name one of New Zealand’s wine-growing region?

17- Which grape varieties are grown in the Alsace region?

18- In which country is Cava produced?

19- Where is the region called “Constantia” located?

20- Which regions have a reputation for producing exceptional Sauvignon Blanc?

21- In which country is the designation DOCG used?

22- Which is the main grape variety in the blending of Anjou rosé?

23- Do we mostly drink young or old Pinot Noir?

24 – Which grape varieties are often found in French and Spanish rosé wines?


III. Questions about wine production of WSET:

glass of wine and bottles of wine

1 – What do old oak containers (often barrels) bring?

2 – What term is used on Italian wine labels to indicate that grapes come from the historical centre of the production region?

3 – What does the Solera system refer to?

4 – Compared to red wines, at which temperature do white wines make fermentation?

5 – From which parts of the grape does the color, tannins and flavor come from?

6 – What does the German term “spatlese” mean in the wine sector?

7 – Which factor is the most dangerous for wine production?

8 – What is Botrytis?

9 – Of what size is a standard glass (ISO)?

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